在乔治亚州, 不像大多数有大城市的州, the county is still the center of political and cultural life for a majority of the state's residents. Counties carry out locally a variety of state programs and policies, 包括收税, 监督选举, 主持法庭, 存档官方记录, 维护道路, and providing for the welfare of citizens.
桃县政府, under the leadership of a five-person elected commission, provides high quality essential services for Peach residents and as many other services as tax revenues allow.
Counties were created by a rural society that looked to government to keep the records straight and the justice swift. To help counties administer state programs and conduct state courts, the state constitution originally created four elected county officers: the Sheriff, 税务专员, 高级法院书记员, 以及遗嘱认证法庭的法官.
In 1868 the state began creating the position of County Ordinary to administer the general operations of the county. The 1868 constitution provided that “courts of ordinary shall have such powers in relation to roads, 桥梁, 渡轮, 公共建筑, 乞丐, 县办公室, 县基金和税收, 还有其他问题, 法律应赋予他们的权利.“然而, the 1868 constitution also authorized the General Assembly to create county commissioners “in such counties as may require them, 并定义他们的职责.” Upon ratification of the 1868 constitution, every county in Georgia was governed by the county ordinary. 但是，这种情况很快就改变了.
In 1869, the General Assembly passed a local act creating the state's first “board of commissioners of roads and revenues,” a three-member commission for Harris County. By 1877 more than half of Georgia’s counties were governed by county commissioners rather than ordinaries. The sole commissioner form of government has been phased out for the most part with only 8 of Georgia's 159 counties being governed by a sole commissioner.
County constitutional officers are elected for four-year terms and have such powers and duties as provided by general law. Although dependent upon funding from the county commission, county constitutional officers have a degree of autonomy in carrying out their duties not enjoyed by other county government officials.
The Sheriff enforces the law, maintains peace in the county, and serves as the jailer.
The functions of 税务专员 resemble those of an accountant for the county. 他或她收到所有的纳税申报单, 维护县的税务记录, and collects and pays tax funds to the state and local governments. 协助税务专员, the 委员会 in some counties has established a Tax Assessor's Board, 均衡板, 及/或评估师委员会. 这些规定的目的, 没有选举, boards is to ensure that everyone pays his or her fair share of taxes.
The Clerk of the 高等法院 is the primary record keeper for the county. The clerk maintains all the court records and supervises the registration of property transactions. Each 委员会 also has its own 县, who is responsible for keeping the records for the Board.
The Judge of the 遗嘱检验法院 has a broad range of powers, mostly unrelated to criminal matters. He or she oversees matters pertaining to property deeds, 结婚证, 监护, and wills; supervises elections; and administers public oaths of office. 协助遗嘱承办法庭的法官, the state has created a local 选举委员会 in almost every county.
Beyond the powers assigned to the constitutional officers, the 委员会 is the county governing authority. 它有权通过条例, 决议, or regulations relating to county property, 县事务, 以及地方政府的运作.
Every county conducts local courts of law, 选民登记, and elections; sells motor vehicle tags; files official records of property ownership; builds and repairs county roads; probates wills; and administers welfare and public assistance programs. The 1983 Constitution added supplementary powers to this list of county duties. 各县可以提供:
- Garbage and solid waste collection and disposal
- 公共卫生设施和服务, 包括:医院, 救护车, 应急救援, 还有动物管理
- Street and road construction, including curbs, sidewalks, and street lights
- Parks, recreational areas, facilities, and programs
- Storm-water and sewage collection and disposal systems
- Libraries, archives, and arts/sciences programs and facilities
- Terminal and dock facilities and parking facilities
- Codes, including building, housing, plumbing, and electrical codes
These supplementary powers address the need to improve and maintain the state's quality of life. Cities and towns have long offered these services, but they were seldom seen outside the urban environment. As Georgia's population has grown, so too has the number of residents who want citylike services. 根据美国.S. 人口普查, approximately 67 percent of Georgians lived outside a city by 2000, and many expected the same quality of life as their city-dwelling friends and relatives.